UPSC PHILOSOPHY OPTIONAL NOTES BASICS || PART 2 STUDY MATERIAL DOWNLOAD

PHILOSOPHY OPTIONAL NOTES UPSC PCS

Hello ALL IAS aspirants, Today we are going to start philosophy optional notes. These notes would help you in state civil services, UPSC, PCS, JRF NET, JNU ENTRANCE EXAMINATION, ACADEMICS EXAM, etc. Remember all these notes prepared for ibpsrecruitmentss.com by UPSC aspirant ( G. Meena) who has a good hand in philosophy( subject, also giving coaching to civil services examinations. He has also given 3 times interview in UPSC IAS examination, his strong point is philosophy optional subject both paper. all aspirants can download UPSC PHILOSOPHY OPTIONAL NOTES BASICS part 1 in the last of this lecture, link is given in the last. You can also watch all video on youtube channel HELPING BRAINS. In this lecture a detailed introduction of philosophy is given and also syllabus discussed. You can also download last 2 year UPSC optional philosophy paper 2018 and 2019 mains question paper.

Humble request please visit previous lecture UPSC PCS PHILOSOPHY OPTIONA BASICS PART 1

CONTINUE AFTER PART 1…

UPSC PHILOSOPHY OPTIONAL NOTES BASICS : EPISTEMOLOGY OR THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE

IT IS AN IMPORTANT BRANCH OF PHILOSOPHY WHICH TAKES INTO ACCOUNT THE FOLLOWING THINGS-: ¡1. SOURCE OF VALID KNOWLEDGE ¡2.NATURE OF VALID KNOWLEDGE ¡3.LIMITATIONS OF VALID KNOWLEDGE ¡4.VALIDITY OF KNOWLEDGE ¡5.RELATION BETWEEN “KNOWER “AND “KNOWABLE”. VALID KNOWLEDGE IS KNOWN AS PRAMA WHEREAS INVALID IS KNOWN AS APRAMA. ¡e.g., KNOWLEDGE OF ROPE AS ROPE IS PRAMA WHEREAS KNOWLEDGE OF ROPE AS SNAKE IS APRAMA. ¡SOURCE OF PRAMA IS KNOWN AS PRAMANA.

READ ALSO: UPSC ANCIENT INDIAN HISTORY NOTES NCERT CLASS 11

RELATION BETWEEN KNOWER AND KNOWABLE:

KNOWER(JNATA) MEANS “ONE WHO FINDS THE KNOWLEDGE.” ¡KNOWABLE OR OBJECT OF KNOWLEDGE MEANS “REGARDING WHOM WE FIND KNOWLEDGE.” ¡e.g., IF A PERSON FINDS KNOWLEDGE OF ROPE THEN THAT PERSON IS KNOWER WHEREAS ROPE IS KNOWABLE OR OBJECT OF KNOWLEDGE. ¡ON THE BASIS OF RELATION BETWEEN KNOWER AND KNOWABLE TWO CONCEPTS EMERGED:- ¡REALISM– WHEN KNOWABLE HAS SEPARATE, DIFFERENT AND INDEPENDENT(SDI) EXISTENCE FROM KNOWER. ¡IDEALISM– WHEN KNOWABLE HAS NO SEPARATE,NO DIFFERENT AND NO INDEPENDENT EXISTENCE FROM KNOWER. ¡MOST OF THE PHILOSOPHERS ARE REALIST IN NATURE.

INDIAN PHILOSOPHY-SOURCE OF VALID KNOWLEDGE(PRAMANA):

IN INDIAN PHILOSOPHY THERE ARE SIX PRAMANAS- ¡PERCEPTION(PRATYAKSHA) ¡INFERENCE(ANUMANA) ¡VERBAL TESTIMONY(SHABDA PRAMANA) ¡COMPARISON(UPAMANA) ¡IMPLICATION OR POSTULATION(ARTHAPATTI) ¡NON-APPREHENSION(ANUPALABDHI).

WESTERN PHILOSOPHY-SOURCE OF VALID KNOWLEDGE:

THERE ARE TWO SOURCES OF VALID KNOWLEDGE ACCEPTED BY WESTERN PHILOSOPHERS-: ¡REASON AND ¡EXPERIENCE ¡THOSE PHILOSOPHERS WHO ACCEPT REASON AS THE SOURCE OF VALID KNOWLEDGE ARE KNOWN AS RATIONALISTS. ¡THOSE PHILOSOPHERS WHO ACCEPT EXPERIENCE AS THE SOURCE OF VALID KNOWLEDGE ARE KNOWN AS EMPIRICISTS.

COMPARISON BETWEEN RATIONALISTS AND EMPIRICISTS:

philosophy rationalist vs empiricists

CLASSIFICATION OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHY:

¡ON THE BASIS OF VEDAS- ¡ASTIC(ORTHODOX) AND NASTIC(HETERODOX). ¡ASTIC MEANS BELIEF IN THE AUTHORITY/VALIDITY OF VEDAS. ¡e.g., N-V, SAMKHYA-YOGA,MIMANSA-VEDANTA (SAD DARSHAN-SIX PHILOSOPHY) AND SRI AUROBINDO(NEO-VEDANTIC PP). ¡MIMANSA AND VEDANTA ARE DIRECTLY BASED UPON VEDAS WHEREAS OTHER FOUR ARE INDIRECTLY BASED ON VEDAS. ¡NASTIC MEANS NON-BELIEF IN THE AUTHORITY/VALIDITY OF VEDAS. ¡e.g., CARVAKA, BUDDHISM, JAINISM.

¡ON THE BASIS OF GOD- ¡THEIST AND ATHEIST. ¡THEIST MEANS ACCEPTENCE OF GOD. ¡e.g., NYAYA-VAISESIKA, YOGA,VEDANTA AND SRI AUROBINDO. ¡ATHEIST MEANS DENIAL OF GOD. ¡e.g., CARVAKA, BUDDHISM, JAINISM, MIMANSA AND SAMKHYA.

classification astik vs nastik

IMPORTANT FEATURES OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHY:

1. CAUSE-EFFECT THEORY-

ACCORDING TO CAUSAL THEORY- ¡ EVERY EFFECT HAS A CAUSE ¡THERE IS SIMILARITY BETWEEN CAUSE AND EFFECT. e.g., CLAY(CAUSE)-POT(EFFECT)

 MILK(CAUSE)-CURD(EFFECT) COTTON(CAUSE)-CLOTH(EFFECT) ¡SCIENCE ACCEPTS CAUSAL THEORY AS A BASIC POSTULATE. ¡e.g., EARTHQUAKE, GRAVEYARD etc. ¡ INDIAN PHILOSOPHERS ALSO ACCEPT CAUSAL THEORY AS A BASIC POSTULATE EXCEPT FEW SUCH AS CARVAKA BUT THERE IS A DISPUTE BETWEEN DIFFERENT PHILOSOPHERS REGARDING THE RELATION BETWEEN CAUSE AND EFFECT AND ON THAT BASIS DIFFERENT THEORIES CAME INTO EXISTENCE.

DIFFERENT CAUSAL THEORIES IN INDIAN PHILOSOPHY:

¡SATKARYAVADA(SKV)- THIS THEORY BELIEVES THAT EFFECT PRE-EXISTS IN THE CAUSE. ¡HERE SAT MEANS PRESENT, KARYA MEANS EFFECT AND VADA MEANS THEORY SO SKV MEANS EFFECT IS PRESENT IN ITS CAUSE BEFORE PRODUCTION. ¡SUPPORTED BY SAMKHYA, RAMANUJA etc.

CAUSAL THEORY CONTD:

¡ASATKARYAVADA(ASKV)- THIS THEORY BELIEVES THAT EFFECT DOES NOT PRE-EXISTS IN THE CAUSE. ¡HERE ASAT MEANS NOT PRESENT, KARYA MEANS EFFECT AND VADA MEANS THEORY SO ASKV MEANS EFFECT IS NOT PRESENT IN ITS CAUSE BEFORE PRODUCTION. ¡SUPPORTED BY NYAYA-VAISESIKA.

¡PRATITYASAMUTAPADA OR THEORY OF DEPENDENT ORIGINATION OR RELATIVE CAUSAL THEORY. ¡HERE PRATITYA MEANS DEPENDENT ON/BASED ON (CAUSE) ¡SAMUTAPADA MEANS ORIGIN(EFFECT) ¡THEREFORE PRATITYASAMUTAPADA MEANS ORIGIN OF EFFECT IS DEPENDENT ON ITS CAUSE. ¡IT IS ONE OF THE CELEBRATED THEORY OF CAUSALITY. ¡IT IS CONSIDERED AS MIDDLE PATH BETWEEN TWO EXTREMES i.e., SKV AND ASKV. ¡SUPPORTED BY BUDDHISM.

philosophy causal theory

         

 LAW OF KARMA:

¡LAW OF KARMA(LOK) IS THE APPLICATION OF CAUSAL THEORY IN THE FIELD OF MORALITY. ¡LAW OF KARMA SAYS –”GOOD DEEDS RESULTS INTO GOOD FRUITS WHEREAS BAD DEEDS RESULTS INTO BAD FRUITS.” ¡IN OTHER WORD-”AS YOU SOW SO SHALL YOU REAP.” ¡NO ONE CAN ESCAPE FROM THE LOK. ¡INCONSISTENCY IN LOK (SOME PEOPLE ALWAYS PERFORMING BAD DEEDS BUT FINDING GOOD FRUITS WHEREAS SOME PEOPLE ALWAYS PERFORMING GOOD DEEDS BUT FINDING BAD FRUITS) CAN BE PROPERLY EXPLAINED ON THE BASIS OF REBIRTH.

UPSC PHILOSOPHY OPTIONAL NOTES BASICS IMPORTANT FEATURES OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHY:

2. IMMORTALITY OF SOUL

IT MEANS EXISTENCE OF SOUL EVEN AFTER DEATH i.e., BODY IS DESTROYED BUT SOUL REMAINS INTACT. ¡ ALL INDIAN PHILOSOPHERS HAVE ACCEPTED THIS CONCEPT EXCEPT CARVAKA AND BUDDHISM. ¡CARVAKA PP HAVE ABSOLUTELY REJECTED SOUL WHEREAS BUDDHIST PP HAVE ACCEPTED SOUL BUT NOT ACCEPTED IMMORTALITY OF SOUL. ACCORDING TO THEM SOUL IS ALSO CHANGEABLE IN NATURE LIKE OTHER THINGS THEREFORE IT CANNOT BE REGARDED AS IMMORTAL.

IMMORTALITY OF SOUL:

¡नैनं छिन्दन्ति शस्त्राणि नैनं दहति पावकः ।

    न चैनं क्लेदयन्त्यापो न शोषयति मारुतः ॥ ¡Nainam Chindanti Sastrani Nainam Dahati Pavakah,

Na Cainam Kledayantyapo Na Sosayati Marutah. ¡TRANSLATION– ¡The soul can never be cut into pieces by any weapon, nor can be burned by fire, nor moistened by water, nor withered by the wind.

3. REBIRTH

IT MEANS TAKING BIRTH AGAIN AND AGAIN UNTIL LIBERATION IS NOT ACHIEVED. ¡ALL INDIAN PHILOSOPHERS HAVE ACCEPTED THIS  CONCEPT EXCEPT CARVAKA.ALTHOUGH BUDDHIST PP  HAVE NOT ACCEPTED IMMORTALITY OF SOUL BUT THEY HAVE ACCEPTED REBIRTH.

4. HIGHEST IDEALS OR PURUSARTHA

IN INDIAN PHILOSOPHY CERTAIN IDEALS ARE CONSIDERED AS NECESSARY FOR PROPER DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY AND TO ATTAIN LIBERATION. ¡THESE IDEALS ARE FOUR IN NUMBER AND CAN BE CATEGORISED AS- ¡DHARMA(MORAL DUTY) ¡ARTHA (WEALTH) ¡KAMA (PHYSICAL PLEASURE) ¡MOKSHA (LIBERATION) ¡THESE IDEALS ARE TO BE PERFORMED IN ORDER TO ATTAIN LIBERATION.THE FIRST THREE ARE MEANS WHEREAS LAST ONE IS AN END.

5. FOUR ASHRAMS IN INDIAN PHILOSOPHY WHICH ARE TO BE FOLLOWED ACCORDING TO AGE:- ¡BRAHAMCHARYA ASHRAM UPTO 25 YEARS ¡GRAHASTHA ASHRAM FROM 26-50 YEARS ¡VANPRASTHA ASHRAM FROM 51-75 YEARS ¡SANYASA ASHRAMA FROM 75 YEARS ONWARDS.

6. IT IS POSSIBLE TO FIND HAPPINESS ALWAYS BUT FOR THAT ONE NEED TO LOOK INNER SELF INSTEAD OF FINDING PLEASURE OUTSIDE. ¡e.g., A PERSON EARNING RS.100 PER DAY CAN BE HAPPY WHEREAS A PERSON EARNING RS.1 LAKH PER DAY CAN BE SAD. ¡HAPPINESS CAN BE PERMANENT ONLY WHEN IT COMES FROM INSIDE AND NOT FROM OUTSIDE.FROM OUTSIDE WE CAN GET ONLY PLEASURE WHICH IS SHORT-LIVED WHEREAS HAPPINESS WILL COME FROM INSIDE WHICH IS LONG-LASTING.

UPSC PHILOSOPHY OPTIONAL NOTES BASICS PART 3 SHORT NOTES AVAILABLE IN NEXT LECTURE

दर्शनशास्र ( PHILOSOPHY) OPTIONAL NOTES AND IAS MAINS QUESTION PAPER 2018 AND 2019 DOWNLOAD HERE.

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