PHILOSOPHY OPTIONAL NOTES UPSC PCS || PART 1 BASICS STUDY METERIAL SYLLABUS DOWNLOAD

PHILOSOPHY OPTIONAL NOTES UPSC PCS

Hello IAS aspirants, Today we are starting philosophy optional notes. These notes would help you in UPSC, PCS, JRF NET, JNU ENTRANCE EXAMINATION, ACADEMICS EXAM, etc. Remember these notes prepared for ibpsrecruitmentss.com by UPSC aspirants( G. Meena) who has a good command in philosophy subject, also giving coaching for civil services examinations. He is also given 3 times interview in UPSC IAS examination, his strong point is philosophy optional both paper. all aspirants can download PHILOSOPHY OPTIONAL NOTES UPSC PCS part 1 in the last of this page/lecture, link is given in the last. You can also watch video on youtube channel HELPING BRAINS. In this lecture a detailed introduction of philosophy is given, also syllabus discussed. You can also download last 2 year UPSC optional philosophy 2018 and 2019 mains question paper. Lets start.

ALSO READ: UPSC/ PCS ANCIENT INDIAN HISTORY NCERT 11 CLASS PART 1 NOTES DOWLOAD

ALSO READ: UPSC/PCS ANCIENT HISTORY NCERT CLASS 11 PART 2 DOWNLOAD

PHILOSOPHY OPTIONAL NOTES UPSC PCS : SOME FACTS ABOUT PHILOSOPHY

HIGHLY CONCEPTUAL. ¡IF CONCEPTS ARE CLEAR THEN ONLY YOU CAN EASILY SCORE HIGH MARKS OTHERWISE NOT POSSIBLE. ¡SUBJECT IS RELATED TO OUR DAILY LIFE. ¡VERY HELPFUL IN ESSAY WRITING AND ETHICS. ¡ETHICS IS A BRANCH OF PHILOSOPHY. ¡STUDY MATERIAL IS AVAILABLE IN ABUNDANCE. ¡MY VIDEOS MORE THAN ENOUGH TO UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPTS. ¡YOU NEED TO CONSULT THE STANDARD REFERENCE BOOKS FOR BETTER UNDERSTANDING(LIST ATTACHED). ¡IGNOU MATERIAL IS BEST WHICH IS AVAILABLE FREE ONLINE. ¡YOU CAN ALSO REFER PRINTED STUDY MATERIAL OF ANY COACHING.AFTER YOU GO THROUGH THESE VIDEOS, THERE IS NO NEED TO ATTEND ANY COACHING FOR PHILOSOPHY.

PHILOSOPHY OPTIONAL:

PHILOSOPHY CONSISTS OF TWO PAPERS:- PAPER I WHICH CONSISTS OF:- WESTERN PHILOSOPHY AND INDIAN PHILOSOPHY & PAPER II WHICH CONSISTS OF:- SOCIO-POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY AND PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION.

 UPSC SYLLABUS OF PHILOSOPHY :

Paper – I

WESTERN PHILOSOPHY 1. Plato and Aristotle: Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality. ¡2. Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibnitz): Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom. ¡3. Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism. ¡4. Kant: Possibility of Synthetic apriori Judgments; Space and Time; Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of God ¡5. Hegel: Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism

¡6. Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein: Defense of Common sense; Refutation of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture Theory of Meaning; Saying and Showing. ¡7. Logical Positivism: Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions. ¡8. Later Wittgenstein: Meaning and Use; Language- games; Critique of Private Language. ¡9. Phenomenology (Husserl): Method; Theory of Essences; Avoidance of Psychologism. ¡10. Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger): Existence and Essence; Choice, Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Being-in-the –World and Temporality.11. Quine and Strawson: Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars and Persons

Paper – I

INDIAN PHILSOPHY 1. Carvaka : Theory of Knowledge; Rejection of Transcendental Entities. ¡2. Jainism: Theory of Reality; Saptabhanginaya; Bondage and Liberation. ¡3. Schools of Buddhism: Pratityasamutpada; Ksanikavada, Nairatmyavada ¡4. Nyaya- Vaisesika: Theory of Categories; Theory of Appearance; Theory of Pramana; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation. ¡5. Samkhya: Prakrti; Purusa; Causation; Liberation ¡6. Yoga: Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya. ¡7. Mimamsa: Theory of Knowledge ¡8. Schools of Vedanta: Brahman; Isvara; Atman; Jiva; Jagat; Maya; Avidya; Adhyasa; Moksa; Aprathaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda ¡9. Sri Aurobindo: Evolution, Involution; Integral Yoga.

Paper – II

Socio-Political Philosophy: 1.Social and Political Ideals: Equality, Justice, Liberty. ¡2.Sovereignty: Austin, Bodin, Laski, Kautilya. ¡3.Individual and State: Rights; Duties and Accountability ¡4.Forms of Government: Monarchy; Theocracy and Democracy. ¡5.Political Ideologies: Anarchism; Marxism and Socialism ¡6.Humanism; Secularism; Multiculturalism. ¡7.Crime and Punishment: Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide, Capital Punishment. ¡8.Development and Social Progress. ¡9.Gender Discrimination: Female Foeticide, Land and Property Rights; Empowernment. ¡10.Caste Discrimination: Gandhi and Ambedkar.

Paper-II

Philosophy of Religion: Notions of God: Attributes; Relation to Man and the World. (Indian and Western). ¡Proofs for the Existence of God and their Critique (Indian and Western). ¡Problem of Evil. ¡Soul: Immortality; Rebirth and Liberation. ¡Reason, Revelation and Faith. ¡Religious Experience: Nature and Object (Indian and Western). ¡Religion without God. ¡Religion and Morality. ¡Religious Pluralism and the Problem of Absolute Truth. ¡Nature of Religious Language: Analogical and Symbolic; Cognitivist and Non-cognitive.

PHILOSOPHY OPTIONAL NOTES UPSC PCS REFERENCE BOOKS:

FOR WESTERN PHILOSOPHY ¡A CRITICAL HISTORY OF WESTERN PHILOSOPHY BY Y MASIH ¡ PALMER PDF ¡A HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY BY FRANK THILLY ¡INDIAN PHILOSOPHY ¡A CRITICAL SURVEY OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHY BY C.D. SHARMA ¡SOCIO-POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY ¡AN INTRODUCTION TO POLITICAL THEORY BY OP GAUBA ¡PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION ¡PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION BY JOHN HICK ¡INTRODUCTION TO RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHY BY Y MASIH ¡IGNOU MATERIAL FOR M.A. PHILOSOPHY.

PHILOSOPHY IS MADE FROM TWO WORDS:- ¡“PHILO” WHICH MEANS “LOVE”. ¡“SOPHOS” WHICH MEANS “WISDOM OR KNOWLEDGE”. ¡SO PHILOSOPHY IS LOVE FOR WISDOM OR KNOWLEDGE ¡IN THIS WAY WE CAN DEFINE A PHILOSOPHER AS A LOVER OF WISDOM OR KNOWLEDGE ¡PHILOSOPHY IS KNOWN AS “SCIENCE OF ALL SCIENCES.”THIS IS THE LITERAL MEANING OF PHILOSOPHY, NOW LET US SEE THE DEFINITION.

WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY DEFINITIONS:

At its simplest, philosophy (from the Greek or phílosophía, meaning ‘the love of wisdom’) is the study of knowledge, or “thinking about thinking“.

The discipline concerned with questions of how one should live (ethics); what sorts of things exist and what are their essential natures (metaphysics); what counts as genuine knowledge (epistemology); and what are the correct principles of reasoning (logic).

PHILOSOPHY IS THE LOGICAL , RATIONAL, INTELLECTUAL, COMPREHENSIVE, CRITICAL AND EVALUATIVE INQUIRY OF THE BEGINNING AND END/AIM OF THIS LIFE AND UNIVERSE. ¡KEY TERMS ARE:- *LOGICAL   *RATIONAL *INTELLECTUAL *COMPREHENSIVE *CRITICAL *EVALUATIVE.

INDIAN TERM FOR PHILOSOPHY IS “DARSHAN” WHICH LITERALLY MEANS “TO SEE.”THEREFORE DARSHAN REFERS TO THE DIRECT, IMMEDIATE AND INTUITIVE VISION OF ULTIMATE REALITY.

INDIAN PHILOSOPHY BASIC CONCEPTS:

METAPHYSICS OR THEORY OF REALITY OR THEORY OF TRANSCENDENTAL ENTITIES. EPISTEMOLOGY OR THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE. CAUSE-EFFECT THEORY OR THEORY OF CAUSATION. ETHICS AND RELIGION(LIBERATION).

METAPHYSICS OR THEORY OF REALITY OR THEORY OF TRANSCENDENTAL ENTITIES:

METAPHYSICS IS AN IMPORTANT BRANCH OF PHILOSOPHY WHICH DEALS WITH TWO THINGS:- 1.NUMBER OF ULTIMATE REALITIES 2. NATURE OF ULTIMATE REALITIES ¡ULTIMATE REALITY HERE REFERS TO THAT REALITY FROM WHICH THE UNIVERSE HAS BEEN CREATED OR WHO HAS CREATED THE UNIVERSE. ¡THE IMPORTANT CONTENTS OF METAPHYSICS ARE GOD, SOUL, REBIRTH, HEAVEN, HELL, BRAHMAN, JIVA , JAGAT, PRAKRITI, PURUSA, LIBERATION, ATOMS, SUBSTANCE, REALITY, CAUSAL THEORY etc.

NUMBER OF ULTIMATE REALITIES:

MONISM-ONLY ONE ULTIMATE REALITY BEHIND THE ORIGIN OF THIS LIFE AND UNIVERSE. ¡SUPPORTERS:- ¡INDIAN PHILOSOPHY- ¡SHANKAR (BRAHMAN/BRAHAM/BRAHMA) ¡WESTERN PHILOSOPHY ¡SPINOZA(GOD) ¡ ¡NOTE:- THOSE WHO BELIEVE IN MONISM MOSTLY ACCEPTS CREATION THEORY. CREATION THEORY SAYS THAT THIS WORLD IS CREATED BY GOD.

¡DUALISM-TWO ULTIMATE REALITIES  BEHIND THE ORIGIN OF THIS LIFE AND WORLD. ¡SUPPORTERS:- ¡INDIAN PHILOSOPHY ¡MADHVA (INDEPENDENT REALITY(GOD) AND DEPENDENT REALITY(JIVA/CITTA AND JAGAT/ACITTA) ¡SAMKHYA (PRAKRITI AND PURUSA) ¡WESTERN PHILOSOPHY ¡DESCARTES (MIND AND BODY)

¡PLURALISM- MANY ULTIMATE REALITIES BEHIND THE ORIGIN OF THIS LIFE AND WORLD. ¡SUPPORTERS- ¡INDIAN PHILOSOPHY- ¡NYAYA-VAISESIKA-NV (ATOMS OF EARTH ,AIR, WATER, FIRE). ¡CARVAKA (ATOMS OF EARTH ,AIR, WATER, FIRE) ¡JAINISM (INNUMERABLE INDIVIDUAL SOULS AND INNUMERABLE MATERIAL ELEMENTS). ¡WESTERN PHILOSOPHY- ¡LEIBNITZ (MONADS-MONADS ARE NOTHING BUT CONSCIOUS ATOMS).

¡NATURE OF ULTIMATE REALITY CAN BE EITHER MATERIAL OR SPIRITUAL(CONSCIOUS) OR BOTH. ¡ONLY MATERIAL- ¡e.g., CARVAKA ¡ONLY SPIRITUAL- ¡e.g., SHANKAR,SPINOZA,LEIBNITZ etc. ¡BOTH- ¡DESCARTES, MADHVA, SAMKHYA etc.

MATERIALISM AND SPIRITUALISM:

¡MATERIALISM– WHEN  ULTIMATE REALITY IS MATERIAL IN NATURE i.e., MATTER IS CONSIDERED AS THE ULTIMATE STUFF. ¡SPIRITUALISM– WHEN ULTIMATE REALITY IS SPIRITUAL IN NATURE i.e., SPIRIT OR CONSCIOUSNESS IS CONSIDERED AS THE ULTIMATE STUFF. ¡BOTH– WHEN ULTIMATE REALITIES ACCEPTED BY PHILOSOPHERS ARE MATERIAL AND CONSCIOUS BOTH.

PHILOSOPHY METAPHYSICS
PHILOSOPHYMETAPHYSICS SAMKHYA

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