CBSE NCERT CLASS 11 BOOK ANCIENT INDIAN HISTORY || NOTES PART 2

CBSE NCERT CLASS 11 BOOK ANCIENT INDIAN HISTORY

This is second lecture on CBSE NCERT CLASS 11 BOOK ANCIENT INDIAN HISTORY. in this post we will cover chapter 2 and chapter 3 key points. as we earlier discussed on lesson 1 and lesson 2 some points. Here specially focus on key points related to asked in various examination like UPSC, UPPSC, JKPSC, KAS, SSC, RAILWAY EXAM etc. These notes assemble by UPSC optional aspirants. after reading these notes you will be able to solve objective as well as subjective mains questions.you can also watch this lecture on YOUTUBE channel HELPING BRAINS. lets start.

NCERT ANCIENT INDIAN HISTORY CLASS 11 PART 1 CHAPTER 1 AND 2

CBSE NCERT CLASS 11 BOOK ANCIENT INDIAN HISTORY : Chapter-2 Modern Historians of Ancient India

This chapter emphasis on modern ancient history of india. imports notes on this topic is given below:-

Nationalist Views and Contributions:-

  • Rajendra Lal Mitra (1822-1891): Published some Vedic Texts and wrote a book entitled as “Indo-Aryans”.

(He was a great lover  of ancient heritage   He took a rational view and produced. He tracts that people took beef in ancient time.

  • Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar (1837-1925) & Vishwanath Kashinath Rajwade (1869-1926): Emerged two dedicated scholars in Maharashtra.
  • R.G. Bhandarkar: Reconstructed the political history of Satavahanas of Deccan and history of Vaishnavism & other sects.
  • V.K. Rajwade: went from village to village to collect the Sanskrit manuscripts and sources of Maratha history.
  • “History of the Dharamshashtra” a five volume work by Pandurang Vaman Kane (1880-1972). (1963: He was awarded the bharat ratna)

There were many other scholars who worked hard to trace out the historical evidences for the glory of India.

NCERT XI class notes history Chapter-3 (Types of Sources and Historical Constructions):

Types of Sources :- Material Remains, Coins, inscriptions, Literary sources, Foreign Account.

Material Remains:-

Ancient Indians left innumerable material remains.

Some of them (e.g. Stone Temples in South India and Brick monasteries in Eastern India) are still standing tall. 

But major such remains lies buried in the mounds scattered all over the country.

It may be of different types: Single-culture, Major-culture and Multi-culture.

Single-Culture mounds: Represents only one culture through-out (e.g. Painted Grey Ware {PGW} culture, Kushan culture and Satavahana culture).

Major-culture mounds: One-culture dominates over other cultures.

Multi-culture mounds: Represents several important cultures in succession which occasionally overlap with one another. Archaeology: the Science which enables us to dig the old mounds in a systematic manner, in successive layers, and to form an idea of the material life of the people

Type of excavations: Vertical (Digging vertically) and Horizontal (Digging horizontally)

Vertical Excavation: For uncovering period-wise sequence of culture. (Digging layer by layer)

Horizontal Excavation: For obtaining the complete idea of site culture in a particular period (Very expensive)

Radio Carbon dating method is used fix the period of material remains recovered as a result of excavation of site.

Radiocarbon or Carbon 14 (C14) is a radio isotope of carbon which is present in all living objects.

When a object ceases to be alive it C14 content starts decaying at a uniform rate.

CBSE NCERT CLASS 11 BOOK ANCIENT INDIAN HISTORY TYPE OF SOURCE: Coins:-

Numitsmatics: Study of Coins.Earliest coins contain a few symbols, but the later coins mentions the names of Kings, Gods or Dates.

Coins throw considerable light on economic history.

The Guptas issued the largest numbers of gold coins.

Commerce flourished in post-Mauryan and Gupta times. Coins also portray kings and gods, and contain religious symbols and legends, all of which throw light on the art and religion of the time.

CBSE NCERT CLASS 11 BOOK ANCIENT INDIAN HISTORY TYPE OF SOURCE:inscriptions:-

Epigraphy: Study of Inscriptions.

Palaeography: Study of old writing used in inscriptions and other old records.

Inscriptions were carved on seals, stone pillars, rocks, copper plates, temple walls and bricks or images.

Earliest inscriptions were recorded on stone in “Prakrit” language in 3rd Century BC belonging to Ashokan period.

Sanskrit was adopted as an epigraphic medium in the 2nd Century AD and its use became widespread in the 4th & 5th Ceturies.

Inscriptions began to be composed in regional languages in the 9th & 10th centuries AD.

Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Series of collections of Maurya & Guptas inscriptions.

Ashokan Inscriptions: Engraved in Brahmi Script

Brahmi script written from left to right.

Some inscriptions in Kharoshthi script (Right to left).

Kharoshthi Script -> Till the end of Gupta period, Brahmi was the main script (Appx. 7th Century AD). •Earliest Harappan inscriptions are found on seals belonging to about 2500 BC.

•14th Century AD: Two Ashokan pillar inscriptions were found by Firoz Shah Tughlaq. one in meerut and one at topra in haryana. •Firoz Shah Tughlaq brought them to Delhi and asked the experts of that time to decipher the inscriptions but they failed

•Inscriptions are of various types. Some of them convey royal orders and decisions regarding social, religious & administrative matters to officials and people in general. (e.g. Ashokan inscriptions).Some are records of the followers of Buddhism, Jainism, Vaishnavism, Shaivism, etc. Some attributes and achievements of Kings and conquerors (not the defeats of weakness) (e.g. Allahabad inscription of Samudragupta).

•Inscriptions recording of land grants by chiefs/ princes were mostly engraved on copper plates. •Revenues, villages made to monks, priests, temples, monasteries were also engraved on copper plates. •Languages used in these inscriptions were Prakrit, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu.

CBSE NCERT CLASS 11 BOOK ANCIENT INDIAN HISTORY TYPE OF SOURCE:Literary Sources:-

•Ancient Indians knew writings since 2500 BC. •But our available oldest manuscripts are belong to 4th century AD. •India: Manuscripts written on birch bark and palm leaves

 .Central Asia: Manuscripts written on Sheep leather and Wooden    Tablets •Most ancient books contain religious themes (e.g. Vedas, Ramayan, Mahabharat, The Puranas, etc.)

•Rig Veda (Earliest Veda): Appx. 1500-1000 BC (Mainly contains prayers, later vedic texts also contain rituals, magic and mythological stories). •Atharva Veda, Yajur Veda, The Brahmanas, Aranyakas and the Upanishads: Appx. 1000-500 BC. •The Upanishads contain philosophical speculations. •Vedangas (Limbs of Vedas): Were necessary to learn Vedangas for understanding Vedas.

Vedangas (Limbs of Vedas) •comprised “Phonetics (शिक्षा)”, “Rituals (कल्प)”, “Grammer (व्याकरण)”, “Etymology-History of origin of words (निरुकता)”, “Metrics (छंद)” and “Astronomy (ज्योतिष)” •Written in the form of percept (Sutra) in prose. •Most famous example of this writing in the grammer of Panini (400 BC)

•Mahabharata (10th Century BC – 4th Century AD) •Originally consisted 8800 verses and was called “Jaya”. •These verses were raised to 24,000 and came to be known as “Bharata” •The final compilation brought the verses to 1,00,000 which came to be known as the “Mahabharata” or the “Satasahasri Samhita” •This Mahabharata conflict may belong to the later-vedic period.

•Ramayana of Valmiki •Originally consisted 6000 verses. •These verses were raised to 12,000. •Appears to be more unified. •Composition started in the 5th Century BC, since then passed through 5-stages (5th stage in 12th century AD).Composed later than Mahabharata.

•Earliest Buddhist texts were written in “Pali” language compiled in Srilanka. •Pali was spoken in Magadh and South Bihar. Hence reflects the state of affairs in Magadh during Buddha. •As per these texts it was belived that Buddha passed through more than 550 births, each birth story is called “Jataka” a tale story.

•Jain Texts were written in “Prakrit” •Finally compiled in 6th Century AD in Vallabhi, Gujrat. •Helps in reconstructing the political history of Eastern UP and Bihar in the age of Mahavira. Refer repeatedly to trade and traders.

Secular Texts-> •Arthashastra: By Kautilya/ Vishnugupta/ Chanakya. •Divided into 15 Books, of which Books II & III may be regarded as of earlier age. •Finalized in the beginning of Chirstian era.Reflects the state & society of Mauryas.

•Abhigyanashakuntalam: Most famous drama By Kalidas. •Provide the glimpses of social & cultural life of North & Central India in the age of “Guptas”.

Sangam Literature:-> •Comprises about 30,000 lines of poetry, arranged in Eight anthologies called as “Ettuttokai”. •Different from Vedic Texts as they do not constitute religious literatue. Thus they are Secular in nature. •Refers to many settlments including “Kaveripattanam”.

•Also speak of “Yavanas (People of western countries)” coming for purchasing Pepper with Gold and supplying wines & women slaves to the natives.Major source of social, economic and political life of Tamil people in the early Christian centuries.

CBSE NCERT CLASS 11 BOOK ANCIENT INDIAN HISTORY TYPE OF SOURCE:Foreign Account:-

•No Indian sorces for Alexender invasion (It is entirely on the basis of Greek sources) •Greek refered “Chandragupta Maurya” as “Sandrokottas” whose date of accession is fixed at 322 BC. •Indika: by Megasthenes preserved only in fragments quoted by subsequent clasiical writers.

•No Indian sorces for Alexender invasion (It is entirely on the basis of Greek sources) •Greek refered “Chandragupta Maurya” as “Sandrokottas” whose date of accession is fixed at 322 BC. •Indika: by Megasthenes preserved only in fragments quoted by subsequent clasiical writers.

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